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Integrated Watershed Projects started in Manipur from 1991 as National Watershed Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA). NWDPRA was initiated by the horticulture department and it is still ongoing in some watershed areas of Imphal West. Later on, Integrated Wasteland Development Project (IWDP), Hariyali and Pre-Hariyali projects were also taken up in Manipur. Integrated Watershed Managment Project (IWMP) project of Manipur was taken up only from the financial year 2010-11. So far there are 60 projects being sanctioned by DoLR for IWMP projects covering 9 districts of Manipur. Works on entry point activities for IWMP have been successfully started in some districts like Bishnupur, Chandel, Churachandpur and Imphal West.  Following are some success story for watershed projects in Manipur.

            In Chandel District of Manipur, 7 nos. of IWDP project was taken up covering an area of 44,000 Ha out of which 32,400 Ha were treated successfully by the Horticulture Department, Government of Manipur. Out of the 7 projects , IWDP-I in Chakpikarong block  was sanctioned during 2002-03       and  actual implementation started from 2003-04.Total area of the project to be treated was 8000 Ha. in 30 micro-watershed/villages. Area treated so far   3279 Ha. with a total project cost  Rs.480 lakh and fund released and utilised   is  Rs. 208.95 lakh.     In the past many years, due to various biotic interferences, the natural vegetation of this watershed has been destroyed and degraded the land. It was, therefore, selected to take up the integrated measures of new technology of soil and water conservation.

            As per the concept of IWDP, these integrated measures were taken up in the highest point of the catchment area to the outlet of the main stream. Beside this, livelihood activities such as Animal Husbandry, Fishery, beekeeping, weaving etc. were amalgamated as an integrated farming system for a sustainable production.
            Chakpikarong IWDP-I consist of 30 villages with 30 micro-watersheds in Chandel districts.            The total population of the of the block is 60936  Nos.   The average household income of the families of the area is Rs.13,000/- per annum and the livelihood systems of the villagers are small livestock farming (backyard), weaving, share cropping, rural base agro-business activities etc. Anal, maring, thadou, kuki, kom etc are the main dominating tribal residing in these area.
            The main agricultural crop is paddy under single cropping. Cropping pattern generally one crop (paddy) dependant on monsoon season rain due to lack of irrigation facility. Vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower, potato, mustard, pea, chili, tomato, beans are grown in patches as single crops in Rabi season.
            Some of the natural vegetation found in the project area are Tree Bean, Banana, White Oak,Tsar, Dub-grass, Pomelo, Papaya, Bamboo, Mango, Pine, lemon, ginger etc. Passion fruit which was introduces during the project is highly successful and is grown abundantly in this area. This product is  supplied to the passion fruit industries set up at Senapati district.
            Chakpikarong Block has  good communication facility. There is metal road from Imphal town to the Chakpikarong which is at about of 68 km. in distance. Road connectivity is good except for some interior areas like Thorcham, Gobok, Khubung khullen, etc. Bus services  and other transportation facilities are available which helps in communication and marketing . Many food  crop like paddy, pulse, beans, leafy vegetables etc. area brought to Imphal town market (State Capital) for marketing.

Result/Impact – Achievement is 3297 Ha with utilisation of Rs. 208.95 lakhs as on date. The result and the impact of the programmes is taking care of soil health, enhancement of production/productivity maintaining sustainability of the trend being the impact of the new technologies imparted to the people concerned which was evaluated at the end of every year.

Sl. No. Download items 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
Phy. Fin. Phy. Fin. Phy. Fin.
1. Community Org 30 2.20 30 0.394 30 2.206
2. Training - 2.20 - - - 2.600
3. Water Harvesting structures            
4. a.  Nalla Bund/Gabion                           210 6.30 - - 211 6.330
5. b.  Check/Loose boulder dam       145 4.350 - - 145 4.350
6. c.  Percolation tank/Dug out          29 10.15 - - 30 10.50
7. d.  Brush wood Check dam          5200 13.00 - - 5200 13.00
8. e.   Drainage line treatment        14500 2.175 - - 14500 2.175
9. f. Disiltation/renovation of water sources                                 2 0.50 - - 1 0.25
10. Afforstation work                         - - - - 39.7 2.966
11. Horticulture Development                   
  a.   Plantation of Fruits                    151 11.33 26 2.22 176 13.41
  b.  Vegetable  production               109 2.15 - - 107 2.14

Evaluation/Evidence – The result of the efforts made – conservation of soil, maintaining sustainability of the result of the programme is  evaluated at the end of the season every year and also during project period depending on the nature of the technology. Some of the physical achievements are shown by the photographs.

Brushwood Check dams from locally available wood for treatment of drainage line in Chakpikarong

Brushwood check dams constructed from locally available wood for treatment of drainage line at Chakpikarong

Piggery for livelihood sustainance

Replicability and Dissemination – The project is still ongoing but resources augmented and economic plans developed in this project  is highly successful and  would be   replicated and disseminate  in  treatment of other Micro-watersheds in adjoining areas.


Bishnupur District lies between 24019' to 24054'-N latitude and 93042'-to 93053' E longitude. The district is bounded by Thoubal  district on the east, Imphal district to the north, Senapati and Churchandpur district to the south.   The most important Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park are located in this district. The total geographical area of the district is 53000 ha of which about 85 percent of the total geographical area in the district is valley area, 10 percent is lake and rest 5 percent is under hills. The hillocks are having elevation ranging from 800 to 1930m above mean sea level. The general elevation of the valley lands is around 790m above the mean sea level. The  Imphal river   flows in the district. The district has more of less similar climate with the Imphal district and has two physiographic units viz. hills and valley plains. 

The population of the district during 2001 is 208368 out of which male and female populations are 104550 and 103808 respectively. The sex ratio for the district is 993 females per 1000 males in 2001. Population under the age of 0-6 years is 31191 and male female population is 15979 and 15212 respectively. According to 1991 census, total population of the district is 180773 out of which male and female population is 91125 and 89648 respectively. Population growth rate is15.32

In terms of literacy, Bishnupur district ranks fifth among the 9 districts of Manipur as per 2001 census. The literacy rate of the district is 67.60 percent in 2001.

Peoples of the district are mainly depend on agriculture and allied sector. Very few are in service sector as result economy of the state is very poor. However, there is good potential of natural resources which can be cater for socio-economy improvement of the state. In the Valley area people mainly profess on agricultural activities, handloom, handicraft, fisheries and other forms of animal rearing and horticultural activities at specific sites. There is sufficient land for carrying out various activities. In spite of vast natural resources and raw materials available, the traditional method of production activities are not adequate to improve there livelihood means. In fact, lack of forward and backward linkage is the major hurdle so improve livelihood of rural areas.

The intervention proposed for livelihood are poultry farming, beekeeping, mushroom cultivation, handicraft from locally available raw material, micro-financing of handloom and allied activities. In addition skill development training with proper placement arrangement are the other measures for livelihood support mechanism of the rural areas in this district.

Livelihood proposed for the farmers are introduction of high yielding varieties of cereal crops, horticulture species off season vegetables, exotic vegetables, promotion of organic foods, vermi-composing floriculture and modern agronomic practices.

The present per capita income is very less. Therefore, proper livelihood support system will improve socio-economy condition of the rural poor family. Net per capita income during 2007-08 of the state at current prices is Rs. 19258 and at constant prices during 1990-91 was Rs. 15270. There is slight increased during these two periods.

So far DoLR have sanctioned 3 IWMP projects for Bishnupur district viz IWMP -I & II  for 2010-11 and IWMP-III in Moirang Block for 2011-12. For projects sanctioned during 2010-11, Bishnupur have already completed entry point activities and capacity building training , and  is leading from other districts of Manipur. Various mapping for the district have been completed  by SLNA and application of high tech remote sensing and GIS works are also being done for this district keeping in view of the presence of a Ramsar Site wetland, Loktak Lake. Below are the maps and photographs of the works being done.

Digital Elevation modelling for land use classification in Bishnupur district



Bathroom at Isok mayai

Bathroom at Ngaikhong Khullen

Bathroom at Thiyam Maning Pukhri

Marketting Shed at Isok

Repairing at Ayokpa Kabui

Repairing at Keinou Awang

Reparing at Public Tank Isok

Stair step at Yumnmam Khunou