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Convergence of Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP) with Conservation of  Loktak Lake (Livelihood Programme)


Loktak Lake,  covering an area of about 254 sq. km. at the elevation of 768.5 m located between longitudes 930 46’ and 930 55’ E and latitudes 24025’ and 240 42’ N. is a Ramsar site in Manipur which is considered as the life-line of the people of the State due to its importance in their socio-economic and cultural life. The Keibul Lamjao National Park, in the southern part of the lake, is a unique floating wildlife reserve and is the refuge of the highly endangered brow-antlered deer locally called Sangai (Cervus eldi eldi).  The lake is under stress mainly due to anthropogenic pressures like deforestation and shifting cultivation (jhuming) in the catchment area, prolific growth of floating weed mats locally called as ‘phumdis’,  nutrients discharges from domestic sewage from Imphal carried by Nambul River, and pesticides used in the agricultural fields which washed off into the lake.  

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Integrated watershed management using remote sensing and GIS for eco-system restoration and climate change mitifation - Churachandpur District, a case study in Manipur


The watershed is the total land area above a given point on a waterway that contributes runoff water to the flow at that point. The deterioration of natural resources in an area can be contained and properly developed by adopting watershed approach. Watersheds are complex systems where water, soil, geology, flora, fauna, and human natural resource use practices interact. Hence, watershed degradation has environmental and socioeconomic effects far beyond the more obvious on-site and downstream impacts. For the same reasons, watershed management interventions may bring local, regional, and global environmental benefits (Sarah, 2008).

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